IPM and ICM: The Unique Opportunities and Challenges for Biopesticides

Integrated crop management (ICM) is a holistic approach to crop management, integrating agricultural and environmental management practices such as optimal site selection, crop rotation, and optimization of crop nutrition, soil, and water management, as well as environment, energy, and waste management and integrated crop protection strategies, in accordance with local conditions, climate, and requirements.

Driven by legislation, as well as consumer and industry demands, ICM strategies integrate local knowledge and experience with research and technological innovations to ensure sustainable agricultural production.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a part of Integrated Crop Management (ICM) and the concept was introduced more than 50 years ago as a response to the preponderance of broad-spectrum, mainly neurotoxic conventional insecticides available to the market.

Currently, the definition of “Pest” in IPM includes vertebrate and invertebrate pests (e.g., birds, insects, mites, and nematodes), plant pathogens (e.g., fungi, bacteria, and viruses), as well as weeds.

The objective of IPM is to maintain pest populations below levels that would cause economic loss while minimally impacting the environment, and integrates several strategies including chemical, biological and mechanical control, precision technology, and decision support tools (e.g., big data, including crowd-scouting and degree-day models for pest prediction) and the activation of natural plant defense responses, as well as the use of resistant cultivars. The aim is to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and manage the development of resistance in target pests to both chemical pesticides and biopesticide toxins.

By introducing unique modes of action, biopesticides are used in integrated strategies with traditional pesticides to increase crop yields by working synergistically with chemical pesticides, to extend application timings and allow timely re-uptake intervals, as well as to provide resistance strategies.

While the adoption of more “biologically-based” IPM strategies in the field is still low, in part due to a perception of lower and variable efficacy and greater dependence on environmental conditions on the part of end users, biological control plays an important role in the production of greenhouse crops, primarily due to their effectiveness under controlled environmental conditions, short persistence, and low operator risk.

With advances in the development of biopesticides and technological developments in the use and application of conventional and biological pesticides, we now have a real opportunity to harmonize biological and chemical crop protection and realize the concept of IPM as a truly sustainable and holistic solution to current crop protection challenges.

Figure 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Integrated crop management (ICM).

Leave a Reply

One comment on “IPM and ICM: The Unique Opportunities and Challenges for Biopesticides



Terramera Gets EPA Approval for Biocontrol Product

Terramera announced the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved registration of its novel, broad-spectrum agricultural insect, fungal disease, and mite control


FMC Launches Insecticide/Fungicide

FMC Corp. has launched Ethos 3D insecticide/fungicide, formulated specifically for the novel 3RIVE 3D in-furrow application system that converts traditional


Marrone in Distribution Deal with Input Supplier in Turkey

Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc., a leading global provider of bio-based pest management and plant health products, announced that it has


How the Biopesticide and SMART-TECH Industries Create a “Blue Ocean” of Uncontested Crop Protection Market Space (Part 4)

Editor’s note: This is the fourth of seven articles in a series on Strategic R&D Management in AgChem and BioScience


Bayer Biological Product Registered in France

Bayer said its Serenade ASO fungicide/bactericide has received registration in France for foliar and soil applications on a wide range


Bayer Seeking Biologicals Partnerships

Bayer says it is seeking partners as it looks to increase its presence in the biologicals market. The company is

Wheat field

How ‘Softer Chemistry’ in Crop Protection Addresses Increased Emphasis on Safety

With the recent implementation of the Food Safety Modernization Act, a spotlight is now being shone on the need for

Pam Marrone

Marrone Enters Distribution Partnership in Vietnam, Cambodia

Key factors driving the rapid adoption of biologicals in Vietnam include pesticide residue problems in agro-products for local consumption, new requirements for Maximum Residue Levels on agro-products imported to the EU and U.S., and a growing number of banned pesticides.


STK REGEV Biofungicide Now Registered in Argentina

STK bio-ag technologies, the innovative Israeli-based leader in bio-ag technologies for sustainable crop protection and aquaculture, has announced its ‘hybrid’


BioConsortia Promotes Dr. Hong Zhu to Sr. VP of Research and Development

BioConsortia, Inc., innovator of microbial solutions for natural plant trait enhancement and yield improvement, has promoted Dr. Hong Zhu to


Marrone Bio Innovations Submits Novel Bioherbicide for EPA Approval

Marrone Bio Innovations, Inc. (MBI), a leading provider of bio-based pest management and plant health products for the agriculture, turf


PepsiCo in Deal with Arysta LifeScience Chile on Biological Products

Under the agreement, the select group of Chilean potato farmers that supplies PepsiCo on an exclusive basis will use the solutions from the Arysta LifeScience Pronutiva program, which combines traditional crop protection inputs with biological solutions.


Biorational Processes in Biopesticide Discovery and Development

Agchem companies are expanding their biopesticide R&D and portfolios, driven by stricter pesticide regulatory requirements, consumer awareness regarding hazards caused


3 Questions with BioTecnologie BT’s Piffanelli on EU Regulatory Environment

BioTecnologie BT is a Perugia, Italy-based contract research organization (CRO) specialized in the regulatory testing of biopesticides and biostimulants.


Corbion CEO Tjerk de Ruiter Appointed as New EuropaBio Chairman

EuropaBio’s Executive Board and General Assembly of Members confirmed the appointment of Tjerk de Ruiter as Chairman of the association.


FaunaSmart, BioScience Solutions Form Innovative Collaboration in Crop Protection

FaunaSmart and BioScience Solutions have announced a cooperation within strategic business development and innovation strategies in crop protection. Harry Teicher,


FMC, Chr. Hansen Extend Collaboration on Natural Crop Protection

FMC Corp. and Chr. Hansen have announced a five-year extension of their collaboration to develop and commercialize natural solutions for the agricultural industry.


Tradecorp Acquires Spain’s Idai Nature

Idai Nature is currently present in 35 countries and has posted annual growth of more than 30% in recent years. The company’s consolidated revenues amount to 16 million euros.


A (Surprisingly Long) Biopesticide Timeline

The application of biopesticides in plant protection is certainly not a new innovation. A few examples are presented in the

Latest News


India: Enabling Modern Agriculture Through IoT

Since the first green revolution in the 1960s that radically transformed the face of Indian agriculture, the sector has consistently


Reuters: Trump Greenlights Next Round of Farm Payments in China Trade War

The Trump administration will move forward with plans to distribute a second round of payments to farmers caught in the


AgriBusinessGlobal.com: Top 10 Stories from 2018

What a year it’s been for the global agribusiness industry. While the mergers and acquisitions once again dominated headlines in

Trade Summit

Three Things We Learned at Trade Summit Southeast Asia

Since 2006 AgriBusiness Global™ (ABG) has hosted Trade Summits in all corners of the world in an effort to empower


AgFunder Releases India AgriFood Startup Investing Report

AgFunder has released the inaugural India AgriFood Startup Investing Report in collaboration with its report partner Omnivore. In this five-year